SafeOx
Unit B Badex Building
Westbrook Park
Old Trafford
Manchester M17 1AY
United Kingdom

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e: info@safeox.com

Chlorine Dioxide FAQ Print E-mail

About Chlorine Dioxide

Using Chlorine Dioxide

SafeOx Chlorine Dioxide Products

About SafeOx

 

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About Chlorine Dioxide

 

What is chlorine dioxide?

Chlorine dioxide is a highly effective, eco-friendly microbiocide that carries US EPA, FDA and UK Government approvals for many of its uses. It is a selective oxidant that eliminates both planktonic and sessile bacteria, disinfects surfaces, and rapidly destroys biofilms. The chemical formula for chlorine dioxide is ClO2, it has a molecular weight of 67.45 and exists as a gas at normal temperatures and pressures. Its molecule is small, very strong but volatile comprising one chlorine atom and two oxygen atoms.

Chlorine dioxide:

  • has an odour similar to chlorine
  • is yellow/green in colour
  • has a melting point of -59oC and a boiling point of 11oC
  • is heavier than air at normal temperatures and pressures
  • is highly soluble in water at normal temperatures and pressures, up to 2500ppm.
  • is explosive in air at concentrations greater than 10%
  • in an aqueous state it is a non-polar free radical oxidizing agent

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Who discovered chlorine dioxide?

Chlorine dioxide was discovered in 1814 by Sir Humphrey Davy.

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What is the difference between chlorine dioxide and chlorine?

Chlorine dioxide is not the same as chlorine; it is radically different in its properties despite sharing the word “chlorine”. Although both chlorine dioxide and chlorine are oxidising agents (or electron receivers), chlorine dioxide is significantly more effective as a biocide and disinfectant than chlorine. This is because chlorine molecules have the capacity to accept only two electrons, whilst chlorine dioxide has the capacity to accept five. The chemistry is more similar to ozone than chlorine.

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Is chlorine dioxide environmentally friendly and does it create harmful by-products?

Chlorine dioxide is far more environmentally friendly than other oxidising biocides and disinfectants including chlorine and bromine. Substituting chlorine dioxide for chlorine eliminates the formation of toxic halogenated disinfection by-products including trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated compounds that are harmful to the environment. In fact chlorine dioxide actually helps to remove substances that can form trihalomethanes. The disinfection is by oxidation as chlorine dioxide does not have either addition or substitution reactions associated with its chemistry.

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How effective is chlorine dioxide and which pathogens will it destroy?

Chlorine dioxide is a strong bactericide and virucide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm. It will eliminate both planktonic and sessile bacteria; and rapidly remove problematic biofilm. With minimal contact time, it is highly effective against many pathogenic organisms including:

  • Bacterial spores
  • Legionella (Legionnaires' disease)
  • Biofilm
  • Tuberculosis
  • Salmonella
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Giardia cysts
  • Coliforms
  • MRSA
  • VRE
  • Listeria
  • Shigella
  • Algae
  • Amoebae
  • Taste and odour
  • THM/HMM formation
  • Planktonic and sessile organisms

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Is chlorine dioxide effective against biofilm?

Chlorine dioxide, like ozone, is a dissolved gas that penetrates biofilm by molecular diffusion. However, unlike ozone, chlorine dioxide is stable and soluble, allowing it to travel to the base of the film where it attacks microorganisms and destroys the biofilm at its point of attachment. Other oxidisers react mostly on the surface of the biofilm to form an oxidised layer, like charring on wood. This precludes further penetration. No other biocide has been shown to control biofilm better than chlorine dioxide.

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Is chlorine dioxide effective over a wide pH range?

Because chlorine dioxide is a dissolved gas, it does not ionise to form weak acids (as chlorine and bromine do) in aqueous solutions. This allows chlorine dioxide to be effective over a wide pH range (5 – 10). For example, the pH dependent speciation of chlorine produces hypochlorite ion and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Hypochlorite is only 1/30 to 1/200 as effective as HOCl. Chlorine dioxide being a neutral species with rapid disinfection kinetics is 100% available for disinfection in hard or soft water.

biocidal-efficacy-ph

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Using Chlorine Dioxide

 

How can I make chlorine dioxide?

SafeOx offer a number of highly effective, innovative products that make the process of creating chlorine dioxide at the point-of-use safe, cost effective and simple. Our chlorine dioxide products are available in convenient tablet, powder and liquid forms. We also offer chlorine dioxide generators and chemical precursors.

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Do I need expensive equipment or a generator to create chlorine dioxide?

No, although SafeOx do offer chlorine dioxide generators and chemical precursors. Our tablets, powders and liquid systems can all be used without the need for additional plant and equipment, helping to reduce up-front capital costs and expenditure.

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Can chlorine dioxide be used as a hard surface cleaner?

Chlorine dioxide is ideal for use as a hard surface cleaner. With minimal contact time, it is highly effective against many pathogenic organisms. It is a strong bactericide and virucide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm and will rapidly eliminate both planktonic and sessile bacteria; disinfect surfaces; and rapidly destroy problematic biofilm.

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Can chlorine dioxide be used in cooling towers and for cooling water treatment?

The use of chlorine dioxide in the treatment of cooling water, particularly in cooling towers, closed loops and cooling water systems can greatly assist in the control of Legionella bacteria (the causative organism for Legionnaires' disease), algae, planktonic and sessile bacteria; and biofilm and scale. As a highly effective biocide chlorine dioxide can help maintain legislative compliance, system safety; and the efficiency of heat exchanger surfaces, reservoir intakes and ancillary equipment ... cooling towers >>

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Can chlorine dioxide be used in food and beverage processing?

Chlorine dioxide provides excellent microbiological control for the food and beverage processing sectors in areas including brewing and bottling, fruit and vegetables, poultry and other meats including fish, and dairy processes. Chlorine dioxide also provides excellent microbiological control in flume waters, container washing, pasteurisers, packaging operations and process disinfection ... food and beverage >>

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Can chlorine dioxide be used in hospitals and healthcare facilities?

Hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease usually originates in hospital water systems. The causative organism, Legionella bacteria not only persists in hot water tanks, cold water tanks or hot water cylinders, showers, taps etc. it is often found in the biofilm throughout the entire water system. Because of its biocidal characteristics, chlorine dioxide is ideal for maintaining good standards of water hygiene. Chlorine dioxide has consistently been shown to be the best molecule for eradicating the causative organism of Legionnaires' disease. In the UK, the Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA) has recommended chlorine dioxide as the best available technology for control of Legionella in hot and cold water systems ... healthcare >>

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Can chlorine dioxide be used for potable water treatment?

Chlorine dioxide is used extensively for use in the treatment of potable water, industrial waters and community purification plants. It is also ideal for smaller water supplies such as cisterns and hospital water systems. Chlorine dioxide is approved and recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as an environmentally friendly drinking water additive to replace chlorine (which is known to form carcinogenic by-products) for both the pre-treatment and final disinfection of potable waters ... potable water >>

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Can chlorine dioxide be used for the treatment of ultrapure water?

Ultrapure water is used in a number of specialised processes; it is used to process pharmaceuticals, to rinse silicon microchips; and to feed high pressure-boilers and turbines in power plants and chemical processing installations.

Chlorine dioxide helps control algae, planktonic and sessile bacteria; and biofilm in process piping and therefore makes an excellent choice for use in the treatment of ultrapure water and other applications where environmental performance, reliability and high performance are essential ... ultrapure water >>

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Can chlorine dioxide be used for wastewater treatment?

Chlorine dioxide is excellent for use in the treatment of industrial and process wastewater. It can also be used effectively for odour control and pollutant oxidation. Chlorine dioxide safely oxidises phenols, cyanides, aldehydes and mercaptans; and reduced sulphur compounds and some pesticides. Chlorine dioxide is highly versatile and is also useful in both wastewater treatment and scrubber systems ... wastewater >>

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Can chlorine dioxide be used in water and environmental hygiene applications?

Water hygiene is concerned with the effective management and disinfection of water to prevent pathogen proliferation, especially in stored water systems. Chlorine dioxide is a strong bactericide and virucide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm making it ideal for use in a wide range of water, air and environmental hygiene applications. The normal working range in potable water systems is of the order of 0.3 to 0.5ppm ... water hygiene >>

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Can chlorine dioxide be used to control Legionella bacteria?

In the UK, the Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA) has recommended chlorine dioxide as the best available technology for the control of Legionella in hot and cold water systems.

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What else is chlorine dioxide used to control?

Chlorine dioxide is a stable, dissolved gas that is a strong bactericide and virucide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm. With minimal contact time, it is highly effective against many pathogenic organisms including Legionella, Listeria, Salmonella, amoebal cysts, Giardia cysts, E. Coli, and Cryptosporidium. Importantly, chlorine dioxide also destroys biofilms so bacterial regrowth is significantly impeded.

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Chlorine Dioxide Products

 

What chlorine dioxide products are available from SafeOx?

SafeOx offer a full range of chlorine dioxide related products including:

  • Tablets
  • Powders
  • Stabilised liquids
  • Chlorine dioxide generators
  • Precursor chemicals
  • Chlorine dioxide test kits, meters and analysis equipment
  • ATP hygiene monitoring equipment
  • Rapid Legionella "in-field" test kits
  • Laboratory analysis services for food and water

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What chlorine dioxide tablets are available from SafeOx?

SafeOx's range of innovative technically advanced chlorine dioxide tablets (ClO2) have been developed to offer a quick and easy way of producing high purity chlorine dioxide at the point of use. No additional equipment or chemicals are required to create a highly effective, activated solution of chlorine dioxide that is ready for use in minutes. The tablets are available in a number of alternative pack sizes and will create a stabilised solution of high purity chlorine dioxide as follows:

  • SafeOx 4L - Delivers 1ppm of chlorine dioxide in 4 litres.
  • SafeOx 120L - Delivers 1ppm of chlorine dioxide in 120 litres.
  • SafeOx 5M - Delivers 1ppm of chlorine dioxide in 5 m3.
  • SafeOx 10M - Delivers 1ppm of chlorine dioxide in 10 m3 ... tablets >>

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What chlorine dioxide powders are available from SafeOx?

SafeOx II-P is a technically advanced two part powder based chlorine dioxide (ClO2) delivery system that has been developed to create a quick and easy way of producing high purity chlorine dioxide without the need for specialist equipment.

SafeOx II-P will create a stabilised solution of high purity (99.99% conversion) chlorine dioxide at 0.35% (3500ppm) and is available as SafeOx II-P100 which will deliver 100 litres of chlorine dioxide at 0.35% ... powders >>

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What chlorine dioxide liquids are available from SafeOx?

SafeOx II-L is a technically advanced two component liquid based chlorine dioxide (ClO2) delivery system that has been developed to produce high purity chlorine dioxide without the need for generators or specialist equipment. The two liquid components once mixed together in water quickly work to create a highly effective, stabilised solution of chlorine dioxide that is ready for use.

Alternative pack sizes include:

  • SafeOx II-L100 - Delivers 100 litres of chlorine dioxide at 0.35%.
  • SafeOx II-L50 - Delivers 50 litres of chlorine dioxide at 0.35%.
  • SafeOx II-L20 - Delivers 20 litres of chlorine dioxide at 0.35%.
  • SafeOx II-L1 - Delivers 1 litre of chlorine dioxide at 0.35% ... liquids >>

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What chlorine dioxide generators are available from SafeOx?

Our innovative SafeOx “Smart” chlorine dioxide generator system uses state-of-the-art computer controlled technology to create an incredibly safe, versatile generator capable of producing carefully controlled amounts of consistently high purity chlorine dioxide at varying volumes up to 100 grams of per hour ... generators >>

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What chlorine dioxide analysis equipment is available from SafeOx?

SafeOx offer a comprehensive range of analysis instruments including meters, test kits and test strips that can be used to monitor and detect the presence of chlorine dioxide ... analysis equipment >>

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What hygiene monitoring tools are available from SafeOx?

Our ATP hygiene monitoring system has been developed for use across a range of environmental hygiene, food and water applications. This advanced system allows hygiene levels and the effectiveness of cleaning activities to be quickly (takes only 20 seconds) and accurately monitored at the point of delivery leading to significantly better control over cleaning procedures and performance levels ... hygiene monitoring >>

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Can I test for Legionella in-field and how long will it take?

Yes. Our rapid Legionella in-field test offers a quick and easy way to identify the presence of Legionella bacteria in water samples without the need for laboratory testing. Using breakthrough technology our innovative test allows users to rapidly detect Legionella bacteria in water, obtaining test results in only 25 minutes instead of days. The portability, ease of use and speed of results make the SafeOx rapid Legionella test ideal for in-field applications where the speedy identification of Legionella bacteria is safety critical ... rapid Legionella test >>

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Can SafeOx test for waterborne pathogens inc. Legionella, TVCs, Coliforms etc?

SafeOx offer a full range of laboratory analysis and microbiology services of samples to assist in the identification of waterborne pathogens including, Legionella bacteria, E.coli O157, Coliforms, Pseudomonas, TVC’s, faecal Streptococci, Clostridia and others ... laboratory analysis >>

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Can SafeOx test for food poisoning bacteria inc. Listeria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, spores, yeasts and moulds?

SafeOx offer a full range of laboratory analysis and microbiology services of samples to assist in the identification of food poisoning bacteria including Listeria, E.coli O157, Coliforms (presumptive), Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter, TVC's, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus cereus, aerobic Mesophilic spores, yeasts and moulds ... laboratory analysis >>

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About SafeOx

 

Who are SafeOx?

SafeOx are innovative chlorine dioxide technology specialists leading the development of safe, eco-friendly biocides, disinfectants, generators and service solutions for use across a range of industry sectors including the food and beverage processing, healthcare, marine and off-shore, potable water treatment, ultrapure water, reverse osmosis, wastewater treatment; and water and environmental hygiene.

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How do I contact SafeOx?

If you would like to contact SafeOx please use our Contact Us page. We look forward to hearing from you.

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I have a technical question

If you have a technical question regarding the use of SafeOx products please use our Technical Support page. Once we received your enquiry one of our technical specialists will respond to you directly. We look forward to hearing from you.

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Careers at SafeOx

SafeOx are always looking for gifted, motivated individuals with the energy, creativity and commitment required to fulfill ambitious goals. If you are considering your future and are looking for somewhere to make a real difference please send your details to our careers centre ... careers >>

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Are distributor contracts available?

Yes, for further details please contact us.

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Is training available?

Yes, we offer advanced technical training on the selection, installation and operation of all our products, equipment and systems.

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Is technical support available?

Yes, we offer a dedicated technical support facility giving direct access to specialist technical advisors across our complete range of products.

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